This study states that Arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is the preferred access for hemodialysis. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) has become a choice for AVF stenosis, and ultrasound has been used in PTA more frequently.

This single-center retrospective cohort study analyzed 129 patients who underwent PTA in the First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University from January 2016 to December 2016. Angioplasty was performed using a noncompliant high-pressure balloon. The process was visualized by duplex scan. Our inclusion criteria were as follows: (1) stenoses or occlusions were located at the juxta-anastomosis site: the first 5 cm of the vein distal to the anastomosis; (2) stenosis was confirmed with the following conditions: (a) flow rates are <500 mL/min in the brachial artery and <200 mL/min in the fistula during dialysis, and (b) the stenosis diameter is <1.7 mm. We used the Kaplan-Meier curve to show the postintervention primary and secondary patency rates of patients with stenosis and occlusion. The postintervention primary patency rates are better in patients without diabetes mellitus (P < .05), whereas the secondary patency rates had no difference.

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