Multiple myeloma is a type of cancer that forms in plasma cells. Elotuzumab and dexamethasone have been routinely used for the treatment of relapsed or refractory myeloma. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of elotuzumab-pomalidomide with dexamethasone for the treatment of multiple myeloma.

This study included a total of 117 patients with multiple myeloma that was refractory to relapsed or refractory to lenalidomide and a proteasome inhibitor. The patients were randomly assigned to receive elotuzumab with pomalidomide and dexamethasone (elotuzumab group, n=60) or pomalidomide and dexamethasone alone (control group, n=57). The primary outcome of the study was progression-free survival (investigator-assessed).

At a minimum follow-up of 9.1 months, the median progression-free survival was 10.3 months in the elotuzumab group, as compared with 4.7 months in the control group. The hazard ratio for death or disease progression in the elotuzumab group vs. control group was 0.54. The overall response rate was reported to be 53% in the elotuzumab group and 26% in the control group. Commonly occurring adverse events in both the groups were neutropenia, anemia, and hyperglycemia.

The research concluded that in patients with multiple myeloma, treatment with elotuzumab plus pomalidomide and dexamethasone was associated with an improved rate of overall survival and response rate.