Endometrial cancer (EC) is the most frequent gynecological cancer in the world. Exosomes, which are released by live cells and found in numerous bodily fluids, can communicate information across organs and compartments, influencing cellular activities such as proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and angiogenesis. Researchers hypothesize that as cancer progresses, plasma exosomal contents change, promoting cancer development and angiogenesis by delivering biomolecules to cancer and vascular endothelial cells.
Commercial kits were used to collect circulating exosomes from EC patients and age-matched healthy adults for this investigation. Circulating exosomes from EC patients increase EC cell proliferation and human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) angiogenesis, according to cell counting kit-8, Transwell, and Matrigel tube formation experiments. The plasma exosomal lectin galactoside-binding soluble 3 binding protein (LGALS3BP) was found to be enhanced during EC development using proteome analysis and ELISA. Furthermore, to investigate the function of exosomal LGALS3BP, they obtained exosomes containing high levels of LGALS3BP by overexpressing LGALS3BP in human embryonic kidney 293 cells, and they demonstrated that highly contained exosomal LGALS3BP contributed to EC cell proliferation and migration, as well as HUVEC functions, in vitro and in vivo via activation of the PI3K/AKT/VEGFA signaling pathway.
Finally, significant levels of LGALS3BP expression were found in human EC tissue, indicating a bad prognosis. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry investigation of human EC tissues demonstrated a link between LGALS3BP expression and VEGFA expression and blood vessel density. As a result, they postulated that plasma exosomes carrying LGALS3BP contributed to EC development and angiogenesis throughout EC progression, offering a new viewpoint on EC diagnosis and prognosis.