For this study, researchers wanted to determine characteristics linked with the surgical treatment of Thai patients suffering from septic arthritis. This cohort research enrolled 450 adult patients with proven septic arthritis from a university hospital database in Thailand. Data were collected on baseline characteristics, clinical and laboratory results, therapy, and outcomes. The parameters connected to surgical therapy were found using multivariate analysis.

The patients had a mean (±SD) age of 53.6 (±17.8) years, with 51% being male. 332 individuals were subjected to surgical drainage (74%). Pre-Existing joint disease (OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.3–4.9), hip involvement (OR, 36.3; 95% CI, 4.1–320.5), abscess development (OR, 5.6; 95% CI, 1.1–27.1), osteomyelitis (OR, 4; 95% CI, 1.1–14.9), and positive synovial fluid culture (OR, 3.8; 95% CI, 2–7.2). Patients who were treated with steroids (OR, 0.2; 95% CI, 0.1–0.4) or who experienced septic shock (OR, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.13–0.83), on the other hand, were less likely to need surgery. This model properly predicted 35% of the instances. Patients who had surgical drainage had a significantly longer duration of stay (median [interquartile range], 21 [11–34] days vs 14 [7–24] days; p < 0.0001) and were less likely to recover completely (26% vs 53%, p < 0.0001). The mortality rate, on the other hand, was lower (2.4% vs 10.2% ).

Patients with septic arthritis who had an underlying joint illness, hip involvement, abscess development, osteomyelitis, and organisms in their synovial fluid were more likely to require surgical intervention but had a reduced death rate.