Color vision deficiencies are significant biomarkers, but existing tests (for example, the Hardy-Rand-Rittler (HRR) and Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test (FM100)) were insensitive and time-intensive to conduct. FInD was a computer-based, generalizable, fast, self-administered paradigm that had been validated. For a study, researchers described FInD Color Detection and FInD Color Discrimination and compared performance in 9 color-typical and 4 atypical observers to HRR and FM100 tests. Chromatic stimuli were shown in 3 charts, each with 44 cells, on a luminance-gamma and cone-isolating calibrated display. In 8 Hz luminance noise, each cell included one (detection) or two (discrimination) gaussian chromatic patches. Observers reported whether a stimulus was present or if the two stimuli differed in color. D’ was determined for short, medium, or long wavelength-isolating stimuli (detection) or hue differences in HSV space, centered on the three major and three confusion axes at 50% and 100% saturation, respectively (discrimination). 

Atypical viewers had greater detection and discrimination thresholds than typical observers, with a selective elevation of detection and discrimination thresholds correlating to classic color deficiencies. The FInD Color Detection & Discrimination tests uncover chromatic sensitivity impairments along the visual pathways quickly and efficiently, and they might be a helpful diagnostic tool.