Intraocular pressure (IOP) refers to the fluid pressure inside the eye and is an essential aspect in the evaluation of patients at risk of glaucoma. But the prevalence of glaucoma associated with the distribution of IOP is not clear. This study aims to evaluate the distribution of IOP and the risk of glaucoma.

This community-based cross-sectional observational cohort study included a total of 8,401 participants aged 48-92 years who underwent ocular examination for the identification of glaucoma. The primary outcomes of the study were the prevalence and characteristics of glaucoma, IOP distribution, and the sensitivity and specificity of IOP for glaucoma.

Among 8,401 included participants, the mean IOP was 16.3 mm Hg. Of the included participants, 363 (4%) had glaucoma present in either eye, 314 (87%) of whom had primary open-angle glaucoma. A total of 607 (7%) remaining patients had suspected glaucoma, and 863 (10%) had ocular hypertension. In 83 of 107 (76%) of patients with newly diagnosed primary open-angle glaucoma, the mean IOP was reported to be under the ocular hypertension threshold (21 mm Hg). However, no IOP threshold provided accurate diagnosis sensitivity and specificity.

The research concluded that IOP was not an accurate factor in detecting glaucoma in middle-aged and older adults.