Using a propensity score-matching methodology, investigators examined the economic and healthcare burden of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD). The study team performed a retrospective analysis of two claims datasets from 2013-2019 with approximately 9 million patients who had NMOSD and symptoms that included optic neuritis and transverse myelitis; patients with MS and sarcoidosis were excluded. Matched controls were patients with continuous insurance during the study period and no ICD-10 codes for neuromyelitis optica, optic neuritis, transverse myelitis, MS, or sarcoidosis. Covariates included sociodemographic data, previous health resource use (eg, hospitalizations, procedures, prescriptions, and outpatient visits) and comorbidities. All healthcare resource use outcomes and related costs were increased among patients with NMOSD. Those with NMOSD had 12.05 outpatient visits per patient year versus 10.00 per patient year in the non-NMOSD cohort and twice as many hospitalization days (9.83 per patient year vs 4.17 per patient year), with similar trends seen for sick days (13.72 per patient year vs 8.23 per patient year). Patients with NMOSD had nearly triple the total healthcare costs compared with patients without NMOSD. The study team noted that hospitalizations were the biggest factor in cost differences between the two groups.