For a study, Gut microbiome composition relied on diet and has powerful ties to human health. Dietary carbohydrates form the gut microbiome by giving a potent nutrient source for some particular microbes. The review examined how dietary carbohydrates, including individual monosaccharides and complex polysaccharides, impacted the gut microbiome with successive effects on the host’s health and the disease. In specific, the impact of sialic acids, a well-known and crucial category of monosaccharide were discussed. Complex plant carbohydrates, for example, dietary fiber, usually promote microbial creation of compounds helpful to the host while avoiding the degradation of the host carbohydrates from the colonic mucus. Distinctive and easily digestible sugars for example glucose were frequently related to the unfavorable impact on health and the microbiome. The monosaccharide category of sialic acids exerted a strong yet nuanced impact on gut microbiota. Sialic acid consumption ( in monosaccharide form, or as a portion of human milk oligosaccharides or specific animal-based foods) runs the expansion of organisms with the sialic acid metabolism capabilities. Slight chemical improvements of Neu5Ac, the most familiar form of sialic acid, distorted those impacts. All the elements of carbohydrates composition are thus relevant to evaluate when designing dietary therapeutic strategies to modify the gut microbiome.