For a study, it was determined that because cystic fibrosis (CF) lung illness developed in childhood, early treatment may be the most beneficial. The lung clearance index (LCI) and chest magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) emerged as promising endpoints for early CF lung damage; nevertheless, they were evaluating a few randomized controlled trials on the safety and efficacy of preventative treatments in newborns with CF. To assess the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of hypertonic saline (HS) with isotonic saline (IS) preventive inhalation in infants with CF, using LCI and MRI as end measures. They assigned 42 babies with CF under four months to twice-daily inhalation of 6% HS (n=21) or 0.9% IS (n=21) for 52 weeks across five sites in this randomized, double-blind, controlled experiment.

Infants with CF tolerated HS and IS inhalation well, and the number of adverse events did not differ between groups (P=0.49). Infants with CF treated with HS (0.6) had a greater change in LCI from baseline to Week 52 than those treated with IS (0.1; P<0.05). Furthermore, weight gain was better in CF infants treated with HS (P<0.05), but pulmonary exacerbations and chest MRI ratings were not different between the HS and were groups. In newborns with CF, preventive inhalation with HS started in the first months of life was found to be safe and well-tolerated, with improvements in LCI and weight gain. The findings show the viability of LCI as a tool.