Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients are more likely to contract infections like vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs). This study aimed to examine the incidence of VPD and its effects on IBD patients while they were hospitalized. A study was conducted using the National Inpatient Sample databases from 2013 to 2017. Patients with IBD and VPDs as the primary diagnostic code in the International Classification of Diseases, 9th and 10th Revisions, Clinical Modification (ICD-9/10 CM) were included. The incidence and risk of VPD in IBD patients was the primary endpoint, and this was compared to the incidence and risk in patients without IBD. Compared to patients with inflammatory bowel disease and non-vaccine-preventable infections (VPIs), secondary outcomes included in-hospital mortality, morbidity, and economic burden. Adjusted odds ratios were calculated using multivariate regression. There were 3,560 (0.2%) patients with VPDs among the 1,622,245 (0.9%) IBD patients, while 131,150 (8.1%) patients with non-VPI. The 4 most prevalent viral pneumonia diagnoses (VPDs) were influenza, herpes zoster (HZ), pneumococcal pneumonia, and varicella. In individuals with IBD, only HZ and varicella were associated with an elevated risk of incidence across all age groups. The risk of VPD was higher in patients with IBD who were 65 or older compared to younger patients. VPDs are a therapeutically significant cause of infectious disease-related hospital admissions in patients with IBD, as they are associated with an increased risk of intensive care unit stay, systemic inflammatory response syndrome, and multiorgan failure. Hospitalization rates for patients with inflammatory bowel disease are higher when they contract herpes zoster (HZ) or varicella. Hospitalized individuals with VPD have a greater mortality rate than those with IBD and no VPI. These results highlight the significance of establishing optimum immunization schedules for individuals with IBD, especially those aged 65 and up.
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