There have been various types of targeted therapies and immune checkpoints that act as inhibitors. This has literally advanced the treatment landscape of the Renal Cell Carcinoma over recent times. Therefore, the checkpoint inhibitors have been able to demonstrate the survival benefit. These have been approved in the front-line mechanisms and at the same time, clear cell renal cell carcinoma is linked with IL-2 and IFN alpha cells. These are also linked with metastatic renal cancer. The various other universities are able to research this line. ccRCC is known for its frequent biallelic inactivation of the Von-Hippel-Lindau gene, an example of a two-hit tumor suppressor gene pathogenesis. Typically, one of the alleles has an inactivating intragenic mutation. The other allele is deleted as part of a large chromosome 3p deletion. The sequential events in the molecular etiopathogenesis of VHL inactivated metastatic RCC can therefore be grouped. The loss of VHL activity, constitute activation of the HIF pathway due to loss of VHL activity and the transcription of genes involved in angiogenesis, survival, anaerobic glycolysis. Therefore, the patients have to be provided in the best possible way.

Ref art: https://www.kidney-international.org/article/S0085-2538(20)31078-4/fulltext