Lung cancer is still the largest cause of cancer-related deaths globally; however, recent discoveries in therapy, especially immune checkpoint inhibitors, have shown increased progression-free survival. Unfortunately, these medicines do not come without risks, including the potentially fatal side effect of immune-related pneumonitis. There is a scarcity of data on risk variables and diagnostic criteria, creating a difficult diagnostic quandary for clinicians. Furthermore, treatment and resumption of therapeutic recommendations are, at best, scant.

Both of these characteristics contribute to a great deal of ambiguity about this disease entity. As the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors rises, more doctors will be confronted with this diagnostic and therapeutic conundrum. In this paper, researchers look at the existing diagnostic and therapy recommendations for immune-related pneumonitis and speculate on future research paths.