An expanding body of proof has indicated that gut microbiota imbalances are related to the diseases. For a study, researchers investigated the chances of regulating the gut microbiota to reverse the perturbations by evolving novel therapeutic and preventive tricks. The modulatory impacts of vitamins on the gut microbiome and the host health advantages remained highly unclear. The impacts of colon delivered vitamins A, B2, C, D, and E on the gut microbiota by the use of human clinical examination and the batch fermentation experiments, in mixture with the cell models for the review of immune and barrier function. Vitamin C, B2, and D might modulate the human gut microbiome in the terms of metabolic activities and bacterial configuration. The most different impact was of vitamin C,  which increased microbial alpha diversity and fecal short-chain fatty acids in considerable amounts as compared to placebo. The left out vitamins test indicated the same impacts on microbial composition, diversity, and metabolic activities in vitro, however in different degrees. Researchers determined that the vitamins might modulate the gut microbiome of a human. Researchers conducting follow-up studies targeting the delivery of vitamins to the colon might help to elucidate the clinical importance of the novel topic for treating and avoiding dysbiotic microbiota-related human disease.