Since its emergence, the A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza A virus (IAV) has become established worldwide in the human population and replaced the previous seasonal human H1N1 viruses.1 Head-to-head comparisons of the extent to which diverse influenza vaccines prevent viral infection and disease in biological model systems are infrequent, but important to generate evidence relevant to, reported variations of effectiveness between influenza vaccines deployed in the field.2, 3 Three vaccine platforms are currently licensed for influenza prevention in humans: inactivated subunit or whole virion vaccines, live attenuated and recombinant haemagglutinin (HA) protein. For inactivated IAV vaccines, reference strains are produced with the HA and neuraminidase (NA) genes derived from the most recently circulating strains, as recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) Influenza Virus Vaccine Selection Committee, and the internal protein genes from a laboratory influenza strain adapted to grow in eggs.4 Inactivated vaccines primarily induce serum antibodies against the HA, which are capable of strain-specific neutralisation of influenza viral particles thus protecting from infection.

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