Community-acquired pneumonia is a serious public health issue with high morbidity and death, and hospitalizations for pneumonia appear to be on the rise. It is debatable whether mortality is currently declining, and this is influenced by a number of factors, including an aging population and an increase in comorbidities, microbiological and antibiotic changes, management improvements in intensive care units, pneumococcal and influenza vaccines, and immunomodulatory treatments. Despite the variability of data, some significant publications have been published in recent years, indicating a progressive drop in mortality despite an increase in patient age and comorbidities. However, further efforts are required to achieve a more significant improvement in these individuals’ prognoses. Improved adherence to recommendations, more stringent sepsis care, and improved vaccination outcomes, for example, are all necessary. Furthermore, new and improved diagnostic tests and antibiotic regimens, as well as better identification of individuals who may benefit from immunomodulatory treatment, are likely to be required.
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