Airway problems after lung transplantation are prevalent and can cause considerable morbidity and death. Although there are other risk factors, anastomotic ischemia is the most common cause of airway problems. Bronchoscopic treatments can treat the majority of the problems. However, certain patients may require surgical intervention, including retransplantation. The International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation has just established a generally agreed definition and grading system (ISHLT). Anastomotic dehiscence, anastomotic infection, bronchomalacia, anastomotic stenosis, bronchial fistula, and granulation tissue development are all common airway problems. Despite the fact that there is no approved and standardized treatment for every airway problem, owing to a lack of perspective and randomized trials, a variety of different bronchoscopic procedures have been proven to be helpful. 

Despite advances in our understanding of the pathogenesis of airway complications and therapeutic options, airway complications remain a difficult issue for surgeons, pulmonologists, and patients.