In asthmatic inflammation, lymphocyte activation and modulation play a critical role. Different panels of cell lineages and cytokine profiles are being identified as being implicated in asthmatic symptoms. The advancements in gene variations related to lymphocyte control and key cytokines causing asthma and allergy disorders are discussed in this study. Many asthma-related genetic variations were functionally linked to lymphocytes and cytokines. Through the actions of IL-2, interleukin (IL)-2RB was critical in the homeostasis of T regulatory cells (Tregs). T helper 1 and 2 inflammation was triggered by the ligands of the encoding receptors IL-18R1 and ST2/IL-1RL1. T-cell activation was investigated using novel genes such as orosomucoid 1-like 3/gasdermin-like gene and taste receptor type 2 members. De novo methyltransferases, a histone methyltransferase, CD44, and microRNA are epigenetically regulating T-cell lineages. Environmental variables like secondhand smoking and ambient air pollution had a substantial impact on Treg differentiation.

A large number of genetic loci for lymphocyte control provides a better understanding of asthma pathophysiology. The next step is to identify genetic drivers in asthma phenotypes so that therapeutic targets may be developed.