Malignant pleural effusion is a frequent clinical issue with a rising prevalence that might affect the treatment of nearly all cancers. It is linked with an extremely low median survival rate, necessitating palliative care. There are several techniques for treating malignant pleural effusion, including simple pleural aspiration, talc pleurodesis, and indwelling pleural catheters. Patient selection, on the other hand, remains challenging. 

The function of each therapy approach, its indications, success predictors, and factors impacting patient selection are all important issues that are covered here, as are the health economic implications and future directions.