Excess foetal development has been linked to maternal lipids and placental growth factors throughout pregnancy. However, it is unknown how these variables combine to raise the chance of delivering large-for-gestational-age (LGA) infants. Researchers looked at the connection between maternal plasma triglycerides (TGs) and free fatty acids (FFAs) throughout pregnancy, cord blood insulin-like growth factors (IGF), and LGA in this study. They investigated the influence of various FAs on placental IGF-1 secretion in a cell model. Pregnant women with term pregnancies who did not have diabetes or hypertensive problems during pregnancy were included in this cohort research. In the second trimester, maternal fasting plasma TGs and FFAs were measured. At the moment of delivery, cord blood IGF-1, IGF-2, and IGF binding protein-1 and protein-3 levels were examined. The effect of various FFAs on placental IGF-1 secretion was studied using a human trophoblast cell line, 3A-sub-E. We enlisted the help of 598 pregnant mothers and their newborns. Maternal plasma TG and cord blood IGF-1 concentrations were greater in the LGA group and were related to birth weight z score. Maternal plasma free palmitic acid (PA) and stearic acid (SA), but not oleic acid (OA) or linoleic acid (LA), were shown to be substantially related to cord blood IGF-1 levels. 

Certain FFAs can stimulate placental IGF-1 production, implying a possible aetiology involving maternal plasma lipids and LGA.