Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Pathology for May 2019. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

2007 to 2017 Saw Decline in Number of U.S. Pathologists

FRIDAY, May 31, 2019 (HealthDay News) — The U.S. pathologist workforce decreased in both absolute and population-adjusted numbers from 2007 to 2017, according to a study published online May 31 in JAMA Network Open.

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Nonfasting Lipid Levels Adequate for Assessing Cardiovascular Risk

FRIDAY, May 31, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Fasting before a cholesterol test is not necessary when evaluating risk for cardiovascular events, according to a study published online May 28 in JAMA Internal Medicine.

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Excess Cause-Specific Mortality Tied to Chronic Proton Pump Inhibitor Use

FRIDAY, May 31, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Taking proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) is associated with an excess of cause-specific mortality, according to a study published online May 30 in The BMJ.

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Higher LDL-C Levels Linked to Early-Onset Alzheimer Disease

FRIDAY, May 31, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol is associated with the probability of developing early-onset Alzheimer disease (EOAD), according to a study published online May 28 in JAMA Neurology.

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Many Immunosuppressed Persons Join in Hurricane Cleanup

THURSDAY, May 30, 2019 (HealthDay News) — About half of immunosuppressed persons reported participating in cleanup activities following Hurricane Harvey, and less than half of those who performed heavy cleanup reported wearing a respirator, according to research published in the May 31 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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FDA Approves First Test for Zika in Human Blood

THURSDAY, May 30, 2019 (HealthDay News) — The first test to detect the Zika virus in human blood has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

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Experts Develop Standardized Tool for Describing Cell Therapies

THURSDAY, May 30, 2019 (HealthDay News) — A tool has been developed that can improve standardization and transparency when describing cell therapies, according to a report published in the May 15 issue of the The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery.

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High Costs Associated With Physician Burnout in U.S.

THURSDAY, May 30, 2019 (HealthDay News) — High costs are associated with physician turnover and reduced clinical hours attributed to burnout, according to a study published online May 28 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Remote Ischemic Preconditioning May Have Neuroprotective Effects

WEDNESDAY, May 29, 2019 (HealthDay News) — In healthy adults, there is an increase in dynamic cerebral autoregulation (dCA) six hours after remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) that lasts for at least 24 hours, according to a study published online May 29 in Neurology.

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Extragenital Tests to Detect Chlamydia, Gonorrhea Cleared for Marketing

WEDNESDAY, May 29, 2019 (HealthDay News) — The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has cleared for marketing two tests that detect the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae with diagnostic testing of extragenital specimens.

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AI Model Can Improve Accuracy of Lung Cancer Screening

TUESDAY, May 28, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Deep learning models can improve the accuracy of lung cancer screening, according to a study published online May 20 in Nature Medicine.

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T2DM Is Risk Factor for Liver Fibrosis Progression in NAFLD

FRIDAY, May 24, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a risk factor for progression of liver fibrosis in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), according to a study published online May 21 in the Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology.

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Specialized Programs in Clinical Cardiovascular Genetics Needed

FRIDAY, May 24, 2019 (HealthDay News) — The importance of establishing specialized clinical cardiovascular genetics programs is addressed in an American Heart Association scientific statement published online May 23 in Circulation: Genomic and Precision Medicine.

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Blood Donor Screening Data IDs Familial Hypercholesterolemia

THURSDAY, May 23, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Data from a blood donor screening program could represent a novel strategy for identifying familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), according to a study published online May 22 in JAMA Cardiology.

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Most At-Risk Opt Out of Genetic Testing for Huntington Disease

THURSDAY, May 23, 2019 (HealthDay News) — The vast majority of people at risk for Huntington disease (HD) choose not to be tested preemptively, mainly because there is no cure for the disease, according to a study published online May 15 in Clinical Genetics.

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Early cART Leads to Enhanced T Cell Function in HIV Infection

THURSDAY, May 23, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Early combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) leads to persistent functional T cell responses in most individuals with hyperacute HIV-1 infection, according to a study published online May 22 in Science Translational Medicine.

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Medication Nonadherence Common in Patients With T2DM

THURSDAY, May 23, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Routine urine samples can be used to test for medication adherence in patients with type 2 diabetes, according to a study published in the June issue of Diabetes Care.

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Favorable Trends Seen in Lipids, Apolipoprotein B in U.S. Youth

TUESDAY, May 21, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Between 1999 and 2016, there were favorable trends in lipid and apolipoprotein B levels in U.S. youth, according to a study published in the May 21 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Non-Rx Fentanyl Up in Urine Tests Positive for Other Drugs

TUESDAY, May 21, 2019 (HealthDay News) — An increasing number of urine drug test (UDT) results positive for cocaine or methamphetamine are also positive for nonprescribed fentanyl, according to a study recently published in JAMA Network Open.

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Clinical Drug Diversion Costly to Health Care Organizations

TUESDAY, May 21, 2019 (HealthDay News) — U.S. health care organizations lost nearly $454 million due to clinical drug diversion in 2018, according to the 2019 Drug Diversion Digest, released by Protenus Inc.

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Cancer Screening Less Likely Among Current Smokers

FRIDAY, May 17, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Current smokers are less likely to receive guideline-concordant screening studies for breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer versus never smokers, according to a study published online May 17 in JAMA Network Open.

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Many Lives Could Be Saved if All Hospitals Had Grade A Rating

FRIDAY, May 17, 2019 (HealthDay News) — More than 50,000 lives could be saved if all hospitals had an avoidable death rate equivalent to “A” grade hospitals, according to an updated report prepared for The Leapfrog Institute.

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Private Insurers Pay 241 Percent of What Medicare Would Pay

FRIDAY, May 17, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Prices paid to hospitals for privately insured patients in 2017 averaged 241 percent of what Medicare would have paid, with wide variation in prices among states, according to a report published by the RAND Corporation.

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Recs Updated for TB Screening, Treatment in Health Care Workers

THURSDAY, May 16, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Guidelines have been updated for screening and treatment for tuberculosis (TB) infection among health care personnel, according to research published in the May 17 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Computer-Based Training Studied in Children With Fragile X Syndrome

WEDNESDAY, May 15, 2019 (HealthDay News) — No significant difference in outcomes was observed in children and adolescents with fragile X syndrome (FXS) receiving adaptive versus nonadaptive in-home cognitive training, according to a study published online April 15 in the Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders.

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California Couple Awarded $2 Billion in Roundup Lawsuit

TUESDAY, May 14, 2019 (HealthDay News) — An elderly California couple who said their cancer was caused by Monsanto’s weed killer Roundup was awarded just over $2 billion by a jury in Oakland on Monday.

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Some Cervical Cancer Screening Strategies More Cost-Effective

TUESDAY, May 14, 2019 (HealthDay News) — A cervical cancer screening strategy that involves cytologic testing every three years from ages 21 to 29 years and then continuing cytologic testing or switching to low-cost high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) testing every five years is reasonable, according to a study published online May 13 in JAMA Internal Medicine.

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Light, Incremental Physical Activity Can Help Reduce Brain Aging

TUESDAY, May 14, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Incremental physical activity (PA), even of light intensity, is associated with larger brain volume and healthy brain aging, according to a study published online April 19 in JAMA Network Open.

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Late-Onset Type 1 Diabetes Often Misdiagnosed as Type 2

TUESDAY, May 14, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Type 1 diabetes diagnosed in those older than age 30 years is clinically and biologically similar to disease occurring at younger ages but is often misidentified, according to a study recently published in Diabetologia.

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T2Bacteria Panel Accurately IDs Bloodstream Infections

MONDAY, May 13, 2019 (HealthDay News) — The T2Bacteria Panel can rapidly and accurately diagnose bloodstream infections (BSIs), according to a study published online May 14 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Adverse Childhood Experiences Linked to Worse Lupus Outcomes

MONDAY, May 13, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with worse patient-reported systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) outcomes, according to a study published online May 9 in Arthritis Care & Research.

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Higher Risk for Cancer, Mortality Seen With Pediatric-Onset IBD

MONDAY, May 13, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Individuals with pediatric-onset inflammatory bowel disease (pIBD) have an increased risk for cancer and mortality, according to a study published online May 9 in Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics.

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Health Professionals Supportive of Medicinal Cannabis

FRIDAY, May 10, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Health professionals are generally supportive of medicinal cannabis use but report a lack of knowledge about its use, according to a review published online May 6 in PLOS ONE.

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Rate of Ordering Cancer Screening Tests Decreases During Clinic Day

FRIDAY, May 10, 2019 (HealthDay News) — As the clinic day progresses, the rate of clinician ordering of breast and colorectal cancer screening tests decreases, according to a study published online May 10 in JAMA Network Open.

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Whole-Body MRI Accurate for Staging Colorectal Cancer, NSCLC

FRIDAY, May 10, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (WB-MRI) could be a quicker alternative to multimodality staging of colorectal cancer and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), according to two studies published online May 9 in The Lancet Gastroenterology & Hepatology and The Lancet Respiratory Medicine.

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Model Predicts Counties at Risk for Measles Outbreak

FRIDAY, May 10, 2019 (HealthDay News) — In a commentary published online May 9 in The Lancet Infectious Diseases, an analysis is proposed that can predict counties at risk for a measles outbreak.

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2018 Saw More Employed Physicians Than Self-Employed

THURSDAY, May 9, 2019 (HealthDay News) — In 2018, employed physicians outnumbered self-employed physicians, according to a report from the American Medical Association (AMA).

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Biomarker Test Predicts Mild, Serious IBD in Newly Diagnosed

THURSDAY, May 9, 2019 (HealthDay News) — A new test can predict the course of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in patients, according to a study published online April 27 in Gut.

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CDC: Uninsurance Levels Did Not Change Significantly in 2018

THURSDAY, May 9, 2019 (HealthDay News) — In 2018, the percentage of U.S. individuals who were uninsured was not significantly different from the numbers in 2017, although uninsurance increased among adults aged 45 to 64 years, according to a report published online May 9 by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Health Statistics.

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In 2015 to 2016, 45.8 Percent of U.S. Population Used Rx Drugs

WEDNESDAY, May 8, 2019 (HealthDay News) — In 2015 to 2016, 45.8 percent of the U.S. population used prescription drugs within the past 30 days, according to a May data brief published by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS).

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Patent Foramen Ovale Ups Ischemic Stroke in Those With PE

WEDNESDAY, May 8, 2019 (HealthDay News) — For patients with symptomatic pulmonary embolism (PE), the frequency of recent ischemic stroke is higher in those with patent foramen ovale (PFO), according to a study published online May 7 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Test Predicts Benefit of Chemo in ER+, HER2− Breast Cancer

WEDNESDAY, May 8, 2019 (HealthDay News) — EndoPredict (EPclin) is prognostic for distant recurrence (DR) in women with estrogen receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative breast cancer, according to a study published online April 30 in Breast Cancer Research and Treatment.

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Oral Aspirin Does Not Up FIT Test Sensitivity for ID’ing CRC

WEDNESDAY, May 8, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Administration of a single dose of oral aspirin prior to fecal immunochemical testing does not increase test sensitivity for detecting advanced colorectal neoplasms, according to a study published in the May 7 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Arsenic Exposure Linked to Changes in Heart Structure

TUESDAY, May 7, 2019 (HealthDay News) — In young American Indians, arsenic exposure is associated with an increase in left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy, according to a study published in the May issue of Circulation: Cardiovascular Imaging.

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Efforts Needed to Ensure Publication of All Trials

TUESDAY, May 7, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Efforts are needed to ensure all completed large trials are reported, according to a research letter published online May 7 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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External Reference Pricing Could Cut Drug Costs in U.S.

TUESDAY, May 7, 2019 (HealthDay News) — The average price for single-source brand-name drugs is higher in the United States than in other countries, indicating that external reference pricing could reduce costs, according to a study published in the May issue of Health Affairs.

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Maximal Use of Sunscreen Ups Absorption of Active Ingredients

MONDAY, May 6, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Application of commercially available sunscreens under maximum use conditions results in plasma concentrations that exceed the U.S. Food and Drug Administration threshold for potentially waiving nonclinical toxicology testing, according to a study published online May 6 in the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Congo Ebola Outbreak Death Toll Surpasses 1,000

MONDAY, May 6, 2019 (HealthDay News) — The death toll in the Ebola outbreak in eastern Congo now stands at 1,008, the country’s health minister reported.

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FDA: French Soft Ripened Cheese Possibly Contaminated

MONDAY, May 6, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Consumers should not eat and retailers should not sell or serve l’Explorateur soft ripened cheese due to possible Listeria monocytogenes contamination, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration says.

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Guidelines Address Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis Management

MONDAY, May 6, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Recommendations have been developed for both uveitis in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and JIA manifesting as nonsystematic polyarthritis, sacroiliitis, or enthesitis; the two guidelines were published online April 25 in Arthritis Care & Research.

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Microbial Toxins Found in Electronic Cigarette Products

FRIDAY, May 3, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Electronic cigarette (EC) products may be contaminated with microbial toxins, according to a study published online April 24 in Environmental Health Perspectives.

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CDC: Foodborne Infections Increased From 2015 to 2018

FRIDAY, May 3, 2019 (HealthDay News) — From 2015 to 2018, the incidence of most foodborne infections increased, according to research published in the April 26 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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More Than Half of U.S. Adults Have Medical Financial Hardship

FRIDAY, May 3, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Medical financial hardship affects more than half of adults in the United States, according to a study published online May 1 in the Journal of General Internal Medicine.

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Serum Free Fatty Acid Level Verifies Fasting State in Children

FRIDAY, May 3, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Serum free fatty acid (FFA) concentrations can distinguish children’s fed and fasting states, according to a study published online May 3 in Pediatrics.

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FDA Approves Dengue Vaccine for Endemic Regions

THURSDAY, May 2, 2019 (HealthDay News) — The dengue vaccine Dengvaxia has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for use in the U.S. territories of American Samoa, Guam, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands, but its use is limited to people aged 9 to 16 years. The vaccine has already been approved in 19 countries and the European Union.

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New Drugs May Influence Social Behaviors in Those With Autism

THURSDAY, May 2, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Balovaptan, an orally administered selective vasopressin V1a receptor antagonist, is associated with improved adaptive behaviors for men with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), while arginine vasopressin (AVP), a neuropeptide involved in promoting mammalian social behaviors, may improve social impairments in children with ASD, according to two phase 2 studies published online May 1 in Science Translational Medicine.

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Cervical Adenocarcinoma Rates Increased in Some Populations

THURSDAY, May 2, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Many populations have increasing or stabilized incidence trends in cervical adenocarcinoma (AC), according to a study published in the June issue of Preventive Medicine.

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Childhood Oral Infection Linked to Atherosclerosis in Adulthood

THURSDAY, May 2, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Oral infections in childhood are associated with subclinical carotid atherosclerosis in adulthood, according to a study published online April 26 in JAMA Network Open.

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EPA Says Weed Killer in Roundup Is Safe

WEDNESDAY, May 1, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Despite thousands of lawsuits from people claiming that the weed killer glyphosate caused their cancer, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency said Tuesday that the active ingredient in Roundup is safe.

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Diagnostic Criteria Proposed for Advanced-Age Proteinopathy

WEDNESDAY, May 1, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Progress has been made toward developing diagnostic criteria for limbic-predominant age-related TDP-43 encephalopathy (LATE), although gaps remain in understanding, according to a report published online April 30 in Brain.

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