The researchers sought to screen for AR-associated genes in IT from patients with AR and to validate the expression of common cilia-related genes and ciliary shedding.

Prime View™ Human Gene Expression Array, which consisted of more than 530 000 probes covering more than 36 000 transcripts and variants, was employed to compare individual gene expression of ITs from control subjects and patients with AR. Researchers performed gene ontology analysis with Cytoscape software. The research-validated eight of the common cilia-related genes with a quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Researchers applied a semiquantitative scoring system for immunofluorescence assay to demonstrate ciliary shedding, with individual sections being scored between 0 and 1.

One hundred and sixty genes were differentially expressed for at least two folds in AR. Seven GO categories were significantly enriched, four of which were related to cilium assembly and motility. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction validated the predicted direction of change for common cilia-related gene expression. The ciliary distribution score was significantly higher in AR than in controls.

The study demonstrated significant aberrant cilia-related gene expression, revealed by microarray assays, might be the critical driver of AR where ciliary shedding is prominent.