The genetic potential of resident microorganisms in a specific environment is referred to as the microbiome. Although many connections have been found, the actual role of the microbiome and its relationship to chronic disease processes remains largely understood. The study examined current research on the upper airway microbiome by subsite (nasal cavity, sinus cavities, nasopharynx, and larynx) and its relationship to chronic inflammatory disease processes. Pathogen overgrowth and higher susceptibility to infection may result from alteration of indigenous microbiota at a specific subsite. This has been observed earlier in the gastrointestinal system and lower airways. The significance of the microbiome and its relationship to disease pathogenesis in the upper airway, on the other hand, is less established. The current review highlights new research that suggests dysbiosis to chronic inflammatory disorders of the upper airway.

Despite increasing studies, the role of bacteria in the upper airway remains unknown. According to a review of the existing research comparing healthy vs ill individuals with site-specific inflammatory disorders, the upper airway is home to a diverse consortium of microbial communities. Fluctuations in the baseline microbiome may have a role in disease aetiology, and a better knowledge of the dynamics between altering microbiota may be crucial in directing future medical treatments.