Mitochondrial illnesses are a set of frequent hereditary diseases that cause oxidative phosphorylation to be disrupted. Endocrine signs of mitochondrial illness are seen in certain individuals, with diabetes mellitus being the most common, but also hypogonadism, hypoadrenalism, and hypoparathyroidism. Over the last decade, significant advances in mitochondrial illness have had far-reaching consequences for all patients. Large patient cohorts have helped clarify the phenotype of mitochondrial illnesses, and most patients with endocrine problems have the involvement in numerous other systems. It implied that individuals with mitochondrial disease and endocrine symptoms require professional care since other manifestations, such as stroke-like episodes and cardiomyopathy, can be fatal. 

Furthermore, the construction and follow-up of large patient cohorts implied that clinical recommendations for treating patients with mitochondrial illness exist. There was also a lot of research to find new medicines to treat mitochondrial illness. The emergence of next-generation sequencing has made genetic testing more accessible, and obtaining a correct genetic diagnosis is critical since it affects the risk of involvement for different organ systems. Establishing a genetic diagnosis is particularly critical since major reproductive alternatives have been established to avoid the transfer of mitochondrial illness to the next generation due to mitochondrial DNA variations.