Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are a diverse group of chronic hematological diseases caused by the clonal expansion of abnormal hematopoietic stem cells, of which polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET), and primary myelofibrosis (PMF) have been extensively studied in terms of clonal expansion, fibrosis, and other phenotypes. For a study, researchers sought to evaluate current research on the impact of different types of MPN on bone health. 

Human data were used in research to show that different types of MPN influence bone density, osteoblast proliferation, and differentiation. The majority of data revealed that bone volume is frequently raised in patients with PMF. In contrast, it was slightly decreased or not affected in patients with ET or PV; however, probable distinctions between male and female phenotypes in most MPN subtypes have not been thoroughly examined. 

Osteosclerosis in PMF patients was a significant consequence that could result in bone marrow failure, and bone loss seen in some ET or PV patients can result in osteoporotic fractures. Some MPN types were associated with an increase in the number of megakaryocytes (MKs), and various MK-related MPN variables are known to impact bone formation. Investigators discussed known mechanisms involved in the processes, emphasizing the function of MKs and secreted factors. Understanding MPN-related alterations in bone health should lead to better early intervention and treatment of this pathology’s adverse effects.