The study was done to determine the prevalence and predictors of MMD in a consortium of Asian studies.

The prevalence of MMD was 0.4%, 0.5%, 1.5% and 5.2% among Asians in rural India, Beijing, Russia and Singapore, respectively. In the population-based studies, older age (per year; OR=1.13), female (OR=2.0), spherical equivalent (SE; per negative diopter; OR=1.7), longer AL (per mm; OR=3.1) and lower education (OR=1.9) were associated with MMD after multivariable adjustment (all p<0.001). Similarly, in the clinic-based/school-based studies, older age (OR=1.07; p<0.001), female (OR=2.1; p<0.001), longer AL (OR=2.1; p<0.001) and lower education (OR=1.7; p=0.005) were associated with MMD after multivariable adjustment. SE had the highest AUC of 0.92, followed by AL (AUC=0.87). The combination of SE, age, education and gender had a marginally higher AUC (0.94).

The study concluded that the older age, female, lower education, greater myopia severity and longer AL were risk factors of MMD, and myopic SE was the strongest single predictor of MMD.