Researchers said the 16th International Forum for Back and Neck Pain Research in Primary Care was held in July 2019. The current status of the study on the topic is discussed in this publication. This study aims to assess how knowledge and clinical practice regarding back and neck pain have changed over time and to identify emerging areas of research interest. After a brief introduction to the Forum and its background, the scientific program and recordings of plenary and parallel oral and poster talks from Forum XVI were used to represent the field’s current state. Using results from a poll of experts from many fields, the research agendas set in 1995 and 1997 were revised. Future obstacles and current achievements are then discussed. In the last quarter century, we’ve indeed learned a lot about how to better manage back pain, but the majority of the research priorities from the 1990s and before are still very much on point. Understanding the biological mechanisms contributing to back and neck pain is a priority for developing more efficient treatments. Another obstacle is the need for physical and psychological interventions to be integrated. Avoiding low-value therapies and slowing the spread of back and neck pain in low and middle-income nations are of paramount importance. The difficulties with evidence-based knowledge and practice due to competing interests and incentives were recognized, and ideas for applying best practices were thoroughly debated due to the prior forums. Research on back and neck pain has increased in both amount and quality over the years, and an update of research goals has helped pinpoint pressing concerns in primary care.