Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is one of the most common types of lung cancers, similar to carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. Approximately 25% of NSCLCs are resectable IB-IIIA disease. Although perioperative therapy is used as standard care for resectable NSCLC, its benefits remain to be controversial. This study aims to evaluate the activity of atezolizumab, a PD-L1 inhibitor, along with carboplatin and nab-paclitazel as neoadjuvant treatment for resectable NSCLC.

This multicenter, single-arm, open-label, phase 2 trial included a total of 30 patients aged 18 years or older with resectable stage IB-IIIA NSCLC. The patients were assigned to neoadjuvant treatment with atezolizumab, followed by nab-paclitaxel and carboplatin. The primary outcome of the study was a major pathological response.

Of 30 enrolled patients, 23 (77%) has a stage IIIA disease. A total of 26 patients (87%) underwent successful R0 resection. During the median follow-up of 12.9 months, a major pathological response occurred in 17 of 30 patients. Commonly occurring grade 3 or 4 adverse events were neutropenia, increased alanine aminotransferase concentrations, and thrombocytopenia.

The research concluded that atezolizumab with carboplatin and nab-paclitaxel showed promising outcomes and safety profile as a neoadjuvant regimen for patients with resectable non-small-cell lung cancer.