The neurological involvement associated with primary Sjögren’s syndrome (pSS) is potentially fatal. The exact features of pSS-related neurological involvement, on the other hand, remain unknown. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the clinical features of this neurological involvement in pSS patients. The clinical data of 205 pSS patients hospitalized in our department between January 2015 and June 2017 were examined. The characteristics and laboratory results of pSS patients with neurological abnormalities were compared to those of pSS patients without neurological abnormalities. Forty of the 205 individuals with pSS had neurological abnormalities; of these, 13 had only central nervous system (CNS) involvement, 20 had only peripheral nervous system (PNS) involvement, and 7 had both, for a total of 20 patients with CNS involvement and 27 patients with PNS involvement. Anti-syndrome Sjögren’s type A (SSA) antibody titers were significantly greater, whereas anti-syndrome Sjögren’s type B (SSB) antibody titers were significantly lower in patients with vs. without neurological involvement. Patients with CNS involvement had similar outcomes. There were no significant changes in the other clinical parameters studied between patients with and without neurological involvement.

Neurological involvement is frequent in people with pSS and must be carefully examined. Patients with pSS who have a high anti-SSA titer but no anti-SSB antibodies may be at a higher risk of developing neurological dysfunction. Future research should concentrate on finding biomarkers that might help in the early detection of neurological involvement in individuals with pSS.