Human parechovirus (HPeV) is a severe viral infection and the major cause of CNS infection in neonates and young infants. While the human parechovirus CNS (HPeV CNS) infection is curable, its effects on the recovered patients have not been well documented. This study aims to determine the neurological and neurodevelopmental outcomes in neonates and young children after HPeV CNS infection.

This systematic review and meta-analyses comprised a total of 20 studies reporting neurological or neurodevelopmental outcomes of children after HPeV CNS infection. The primary outcomes of the study were proportions of children with neurological sequelae, gross motor function delay, or impairment in auditory or visual functions.

The analysis indicated that children with HPeV CNS infection were at a higher risk of neurological sequelae over time. The risk from neurological sequelae was 5% during short-term follow-up, which increased to 27% during long-term follow-up. The incidence of neurodevelopmental delay in children with HPeV CNS infection was 9% or more during long-term follow-up.

The research concluded that neonates and young infants (aged three months or younger) with HPeV CNS infection were at higher risk of impaired neurological and neurodevelopmental outcomes, including neurological sequelae and neurodevelopmental delay. Furthermore, the risk increased in the long term.