Optic neuritis and transverse myelitis are symptoms of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder, an autoimmune disease. Attacks can result in severe brain damage, resulting in blindness or paralysis. The discovery of the disease’s immunopathogenesis has resulted in significant advancements in diagnosis and treatment. Three successful phase III clinical trials utilizing targeted techniques to avoid relapses have been published in 18 months. In the last 18 months, new research on epidemiology, imaging, quality of life, and treatment for acute degeneration and prevention has been published. Antigen specificity for aquaporin-4 and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein, which are becoming recognized as different immunological disorders, is being used in epidemiology research to classify patients. Neuromyelitis Optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) are differentiated from other diseases using MRI and optical coherence tomography imaging. This is especially important because recent clinical trials have revealed disparities in response between seropositive individuals for aquaporin-4 and those who are seronegative for the protein. Eculizumab, ibalizumab, and natalizumab were the 3 medications for preventing NMOSD relapses. The research was international, placebo-controlled, double-masked that showed an apparent effect for each method.