Recurrent glioblastoma (RG) is an aggressive type of cancer that occurs in the brain or spinal cords. It can lead to worsening headaches, vomiting, nausea, and seizures, especially in older adults. While the clinical outcomes of RG remain poor, nivolumab and bevacizumab are the two treatments that may improve the overall survival. The objective of this study is to effect of nivolumab and bevacizumab in patients with recurring glioblastoma.

This is an open-label, randomized, phase-3 trial conducted on a total of 439 patients with glioblastoma at first recurrence following standard radiation and temozolomide therapy. 365 of these participants were randomized 1:1 to nivolumab 3 mg/kg (n = 184) or bevacizumab 10 mg/kg (n = 185) every 2 weeks until disease progression, toxic effects, or death. The primary outcome of the study was overall survival. 

At 9.5 months of follow-up, mean overall survival was comparable in both groups (9.8 months in nivolumab and 10.0 months in bevacizumab). The objective response rate was higher, with bevacizumab (23.1% vs. 7.8%) and treatment-related adverse events were similar in both groups (18.1% in nivolumab and 15.2% in bevacizumab).

The research concluded that both nivolumab and bevacizumab did not meet the endpoint, but the mean overall survival but comparable between the two groups.