Chemotherapy coupled with ICI has been proven to provide positive results. On the other hand, ICI monotherapy was still a viable treatment choice. However, there were few long-term progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) data in real-world settings.
A multicenter retrospective observational research was conducted. From December 2015 to December 2018, 435 patients with advanced, metastatic, or recurrent NSCLC treated with ICI monotherapy participated in this trial. Electronic medical records and pharmaceutical databases were used to collect clinical data. Patients’ PFS and OS were 3.4 and 13.0 months, respectively. The objective response and disease control rates were 22.8% and 54.9%, respectively, with a 17.9% 4-year survival rate. Elder patients (>70 years), a good Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status (ECOG PS) score, a programmed death-ligand 1 tumor proportion score (PD-L1 TPS) of more than or equal to 50%, the absence of bone metastasis, and the presence of immune-related skin toxicity, which was an immune-related adverse event, were all found to be associated with good PFS in multivariate analyses. Furthermore, a positive ECOG PS score, a PD-L1 TPS of more than or equal to 50%, the absence of bone metastases, and skin toxicity were all linked to a favorable overall survival rate. The 4-year survival rate was 17.9%. Good PFS and OS were linked to a high ECOG PS score, a PD-L1 TPS of more than or equal to 50%, the absence of bone metastases, and the presence of skin toxicity.