Atopic dermatitis (AD), also known as eczema, is a  skin disorder that makes the skin itchy and red. The condition is chronic and causes impaired skin barrier and aberrant immune function, which may affect the immune response to malignant cancer. This study aims to examine the risk of noncutaneous and cutaneous cancers in patients with AD.

This systematic review and meta-analysis comprised 8 population-based cohort studies with 5,726,692 participants and 48 case-control studies with 14,136 participants. Eligible participants included patients with confirmed AD and without AD (control group). The risk of noncutaneous and cutaneous cancer in the two groups was evaluated. The primary outcome of the study was the risk of cancer as measured by standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) or odds ratios (ORs).

The findings suggested a significant association between AD and keratinocyte carcinoma (pooled SIR 1.46), cancers of the kidney (1.86), central nervous system (1.81), and pancreas (1.90). Case-control studies indicated a lower risk association between AD and central nervous system cancers (OR 0.76) and pancreatic cancer (0.81). Case-control studies also exhibited lower adds of lung and respiratory system cancers (0.61).

The research concluded that AD was associated with a higher risk of keratinocyte carcinoma and kidney cancers but lower odds of lung and respiratory system cancers.