While the main target condition for newborn screening (NNS) is severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), more than 25 secondary targets have been determined (conditions other than SCIDs). There is no standard method for neonate evaluation with T-cell lymphopenia (TCL) without non-SCID and no standard treatment approaches. These conditions will be described and recommendations for assessing and monitoring NBS-detected Non SCID TCL will be discussed. NBS programmes are more likely than SCID to bear the burden of the birth prevalence of the non-SCID TKL detected by SCID NBS. This study will present some publications on the results of these patients and their comorbidities.
NBS for SCID successfully identified SCID infants at birth to initiate early therapies to save lives. TCL may cause significant immune deficiency due to other conditions and treatment depends both on the cause of the defect and on the extent of the immunodeficiency. NBS programmes data collection should involve evaluation of various treatments and clinical results. Better systems should become a priority for NBS programmes to record long-term results of SCID NBS including both conditions of SCID and Non-SCID. The aim of NBS programmes will be to improve results as cost-effectively as possible.