Uterine sarcomas are representative of the variety of sarcomas overall. The 3 histologies that are most frequently seen are leiomyosarcoma, high- and low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma (HG/EG-ESS), and adenosarcoma. Unfortunately, these various clinical and biochemical disorders are challenging to treat in a sophisticated context.

Diagnostic assessment and treatment therapy have improved due to recent developments in understanding the cancer biology of uterine sarcomas. Targeting DNA damage repair pathways and reducing populations of immunosuppressive macrophages were promising therapeutic strategies for patients with advanced uterine leiomyosarcoma. In addition, a small percentage of endometrial stromal sarcomas had mutations in the MDM2-p53, cyclin D-CDK4/6, and Wnt pathways that may be therapeutically useful.

The participation of uterine sarcoma patients in biomarker-driven basket studies and university collaborations would be key to making progress in translating molecular results into prospective clinical trials of new medicines for patients with these disorders. Finding the gene fusions can help with diagnosis as they are crucial in the etiology of endometrial stromal sarcoma. New therapy options were starting to emerge as a result of ongoing research to understand the oncogenic implications of the fusions better.

Due to multi-omic analysis, researchers now have a better knowledge of uterine sarcoma’s cancer biology. For patients with advanced illness, next-generation sequencing may help discover chances for tailored therapy and aid in assuring an accurate diagnosis.

Reference: ascopubs.org/doi/full/10.1200/EDBK_350541