Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Pathology for November 2018. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

Presence of Antiphospholipid Antibodies Tied to First-Time MI

FRIDAY, Nov. 30, 2018 (HealthDay News) — There is a strong and independent association between the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs) and first-time myocardial infarction (MI), according to a research letter published recently in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Case Description Can Reliably Define Acute Flaccid Myelitis

FRIDAY, Nov. 30, 2018 (HealthDay News) — A case description can reliably define patients with acute flaccid myelitis (AFM), according to a study published online Nov. 30 in JAMA Pediatrics.

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Results of Pediatric Genomic Epilepsy Tests Often Reclassified

FRIDAY, Nov. 30, 2018 (HealthDay News) — The interpretation of genomic epilepsy tests has evolved rapidly in the last five years, and genetic variants identified in pediatric patients are often reclassified, according to research published online Nov. 5 in JAMA Pediatrics.

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Genetic Analysis Shows Higher BMI May Up Risk for Depression

THURSDAY, Nov. 29, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Being overweight likely plays a causal role in the development of depression, even in the absence of other health problems, according to a study published online Nov. 13 in the International Journal of Epidemiology.

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Climate Change Ups Heat Deaths, Especially Among Elderly

THURSDAY, Nov. 29, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Risk for heat-related disease and death is rising worldwide due to climate change, according to a report published online Nov. 28 in The Lancet.

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Deep Learning Algorithm Detects Thoracic Pathologies on CXRs

THURSDAY, Nov. 29, 2018 (HealthDay News) — A deep learning algorithm, CheXNeXt, performs comparably to radiologists in detecting multiple thoracic pathologies in frontal-view chest radiographs, according to a study published online Nov. 20 in PLOS Medicine.

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Liquid Biopsy Can Assess Tx Response of Peds Brain Tumors

THURSDAY, Nov. 29, 2018 (HealthDay News) — A liquid biopsy using blood or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) can effectively quantify changes in mutation levels among pediatric patients being treated for diffuse midline gliomas (DMGs), according to a study recently published in Clinical Cancer Research.

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FDA to Update Medical Device Approvals Process

TUESDAY, Nov. 27, 2018 (HealthDay News) — A major update of the United States’ system for approving medical devices was announced yesterday by the Food and Drug Administration.

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Newborns Infected With Ebola in Congo Outbreak

MONDAY, Nov. 26, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Ebola infections in newborns are being reported in the current outbreak of the deadly disease in Congo, the World Health Organization says.

AP News Article
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ACA Coverage Substantial, but Did Not Impact Labor Markets

MONDAY, Nov. 26, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Millions of workers gained insurance coverage under the Affordable Care Act (ACA) without adverse effects on labor markets, according to a report published by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and the Urban Institute.

Report: How Have Workers Fared Under the ACA?

Lung Cancer Screening Implementation Guide Developed

MONDAY, Nov. 26, 2018 (HealthDay News) — The American Lung Association and the American Thoracic Society have established a website to guide implementation of lung cancer screening, according to an editorial published in the Nov. 1 issue of the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

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Implementation Guide for Lung Cancer Screening

FDA Approves Drug to Treat Rare Immune Disease

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 21, 2018 (HealthDay News) — The U.S. Food and Drug Administration on Monday approved Gamifant (emapalumab-lzsg) for the treatment of primary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) in pediatric (as young as newborn) and adult patients who have refractory, recurrent, or progressive disease or intolerance with conventional HLH treatment.

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Arterial Stiffness May Predict Dementia Risk

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 21, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Arterial stiffness may predict dementia risk, independent of subclinical brain damage, according to a study recently published in the Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease.

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Increased Risk for Oral Cancer With Exposure to High PM2.5

TUESDAY, Nov. 20, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Taiwanese men exposed to high concentrations of fine particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5) have an increased risk for oral cancer, according to a study recently published in the Journal of Investigative Medicine.

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Prenatal Nitric Oxide Exposure Linked to Higher Risk for Autism

TUESDAY, Nov. 20, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Prenatal exposure to nitric oxide (NO) is associated with an increased risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), according to a study published online Nov. 19 in JAMA Pediatrics.

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Performance of AI Dx Tools May Suffer Across Health Systems

TUESDAY, Nov. 20, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Artificial intelligence tools trained to detect pneumonia on chest X-rays have decreased performance when tested on data from outside health systems, according to a study published online Nov. 6 in PLOS Medicine.

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CDC: 8.8 Percent Uninsured in U.S. in First Half of 2018

FRIDAY, Nov. 16, 2018 (HealthDay News) — In the first six months of 2018, 8.8 percent of U.S. individuals of all ages were uninsured, which was not significantly different from 2017, according to a report published Nov. 15 by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Health Statistics.

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CDC: Many Americans May Have Prediabetes and Not Know It

THURSDAY, Nov. 15, 2018 (HealthDay News) — More than one-third of Americans have prediabetes, but 90 percent of them do not know they have it, medical experts say.

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No Age-Related Increase in BP for Yanomami Community

THURSDAY, Nov. 15, 2018 (HealthDay News) — The Amerindian Yanomami community, which has no exposure to Western lifestyle, has no age-associated rise in blood pressure (BP), according to a research letter published online Nov. 14 in JAMA Cardiology.

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Calcified Nodules in Drusen May Signal Progression of AMD

THURSDAY, Nov. 15, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Calcified nodules in retinal drusen are linked to disease progression in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD), according to a study published in the Nov. 7 issue of Science Translational Medicine.

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Patient Experiences Shed Light on Diagnostic Errors

THURSDAY, Nov. 15, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Data from patient- and family-reported error narratives indicate that problems related to patient-physician interactions are major contributors to diagnostic errors, according to a study published in the November issue of Health Affairs.

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AMA to Collect Data on Suicide Among Doctors-in-Training

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 14, 2018 (HealthDay News) — By collecting data on suicides by medical students, residents, and fellows, the American Medical Association hopes to identify ways to reduce suicides among doctors-in-training. The data collection policy was approved at a meeting yesterday.

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Molecular Subtypes Linked to Outcomes in Acute Kidney Injury

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 14, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Two molecularly distinct sub-phenotypes of acute kidney injury (AKI) are associated with different clinical outcomes and response to vasopressin therapy, according to a study recently published in the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

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18F-FDG PET Algorithm Allows Early Prediction of Alzheimer’s

TUESDAY, Nov. 13, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Fluorine 18 (18F) fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) of the brain can be used to develop a deep learning algorithm for early prediction of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) that has high specificity and sensitivity, according to a study published online Nov. 6 in Radiology.

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Ebola Outbreak Worst in Congo’s History

TUESDAY, Nov. 13, 2018 (HealthDay News) — The current Ebola outbreak in Congo is the worst in the country’s recorded history, the health ministry says.

AP News Article
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Quick New Ebola Test Approved by FDA

FRIDAY, Nov. 9, 2018 (HealthDay News) — A fast, single-use fingerstick test for infection with the Ebola virus has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

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Genetic Test Helps ID Benign Versus Malignant Thyroid Nodules

FRIDAY, Nov. 9, 2018 (HealthDay News) — A multigene genomic classifier (GC) test for thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology shows high sensitivity and negative predictive value, according to a study published online Nov. 8 in JAMA Oncology.

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Showerhead Mycobacteria Abundant in Regional ‘Hot Spots’

FRIDAY, Nov. 9, 2018 (HealthDay News) — In some regions of the United States, showerheads have an abundance of mycobacteria, and those regions tend to overlap with regions where nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) lung disease is most prevalent, according to a study published online Oct. 30 in mBio.

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Concussion-Related Biomarkers Vary Based on Sex, Race

THURSDAY, Nov. 8, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Concussion-related serum biomarkers vary by sex and race, which may complicate their interpretation, according to three studies published online Nov. 7 in Neurology.

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hs-cTnI Can Rule Out Inducible Myocardial Ischemia in CAD

THURSDAY, Nov. 8, 2018 (HealthDay News) — For patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD), very low levels of resting high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) can rule out inducible myocardial ischemia, according to a study published online Nov. 6 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Medicaid Expansion Approved in Three Republican-Leaning States

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 7, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Hundreds of thousands more low-income Americans could get health insurance after voters in three Republican-leaning states approved Medicaid expansion in the midterm elections.

CNBC Article

Colectomy Appears to Increase Later Risk of Type 2 Diabetes

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 7, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Patients who have the entire or left side of the colon removed show increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes in the 18 years following surgery, according to a study published online Oct. 30 in eLife.

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Polygenic Risk Score Predicts Tx Response in Schizophrenia

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 7, 2018 (HealthDay News) — A polygenic risk score (PRS) for schizophrenia can predict 12-week posttreatment symptom scores among patients with first-episode psychosis, according to a study published online Nov. 5 in the American Journal of Psychiatry.

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CDC Director Says Congo Ebola Outbreak May Be Uncontainable

TUESDAY, Nov. 6, 2018 (HealthDay News) — It may not be possible to bring the Ebola outbreak in Congo under control, and the deadly disease may become entrenched in the northeastern part of the country, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Director Robert Redfield says.

Washington Post Article
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Abnormalities in Genes Linked to IRSP in Alzheimer’s Disease

MONDAY, Nov. 5, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Individuals with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) have abnormalities and reductions in gene expression in the parahippocampal gyri that map to genes associated with the insulin receptor signaling pathway (IRSP), according to a study published online Nov. 1 in PLOS ONE.

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Removing Appendix May Lower Risk for Parkinson’s Disease

MONDAY, Nov. 5, 2018 (HealthDay News) — The normal human appendix seems to contain pathogenic forms of α-synuclein, which may impact the risk for developing Parkinson’s disease (PD), according to a study published online Oct. 31 in Science Translational Medicine.

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Age to Stop Cervical Cancer Screening Depends on Test Used

FRIDAY, Nov. 2, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Continuing regular cytology screening up to age 75 years or performing an exit human papillomavirus (HPV) test to confirm the absence of oncogenic HPV strains past the age of 55 years offers preventive benefit for older women with a cervix, according to a study published online Nov. 1 in The Lancet Oncology.

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Sign-Up Season Begins on HealthCare.gov

FRIDAY, Nov. 2, 2018 (HealthDay News) — The federal government website where Americans can sign up for health insurance under the Affordable Care Act is up and running, officials said yesterday.

AP News Article
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Higher Serum Cortisol Level Linked to Lower Brain Volumes

FRIDAY, Nov. 2, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Higher serum cortisol level is associated with lower brain volumes and impaired memory in asymptomatic younger to middle-aged adults, according to a study published online Oct. 24 in Neurology.

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Financial Conflicts of Interest Prevalent Among CPG Authors

THURSDAY, Nov. 1, 2018 (HealthDay News) — There is a high prevalence of financial conflicts of interest among authors of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) related to high-revenue medications and in gastroenterology, according to two research letters published online Oct. 29 in JAMA Internal Medicine.

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AAD Releases New Guidelines for the Tx of Cutaneous Melanoma

THURSDAY, Nov. 1, 2018 (HealthDay News) — New guidelines have been released for the treatment of primary cutaneous melanoma, according to a report from the American Academy of Dermatology published online Nov. 1 in the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology.

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