Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Infectious Disease for October 2019. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

Early Infectious Diseases Consult May Lower Sepsis Mortality

THURSDAY, Oct. 31, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Early infectious diseases (ID) consultation is associated with a reduction in in-hospital mortality for patients receiving a severe sepsis and septic shock (SS/SS) treatment bundle, according to a study published online Oct. 31 in Open Forum Infectious Diseases.

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Syringe Exchange Program Has Positive Impact on HIV Diagnoses

WEDNESDAY, Oct. 30, 2019 (HealthDay News) — A syringe exchange program (SEP) has averted thousands of injection drug use (IDU)-associated HIV diagnoses over 10 years in Philadelphia and Baltimore, according to a study published in the Dec. 1 issue of the Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.

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CDC: U.S. Life Expectancy Up Slightly, Mortality Lower in 2017

WEDNESDAY, Oct. 30, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Life expectancy has increased slightly in the United States, and mortality is lower than in 2007, according to a report published Oct. 30 by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Health Statistics.

Health, United States, 2018

Facebook Launches Preventive Health Tool

TUESDAY, Oct. 29, 2019 (HealthDay News) — A new tool designed to help guide preventive care for heart disease, cancer, and seasonal flu was launched in the United States Monday by Facebook.

CNN Article

Readmissions Up for Preexisting HAIs With Home Discharge

TUESDAY, Oct. 29, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Discharge to a skilled nursing facility (SNF) is associated with fewer avoidable readmissions for preexisting health care-associated infections (HAIs) compared with home discharges, according to a study published online Oct. 23 in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society.

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Outcomes Poor With Medical Care From Fraud, Abuse Perpetrators

MONDAY, Oct. 28, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Receiving medical care from fraud and abuse perpetrators (FAPs), subsequently excluded from Medicare, is associated with higher rates of all-cause mortality and emergency hospitalization, according to a study published online Oct. 28 in JAMA Internal Medicine.

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Predictors of Immune Response to Hep B Shot ID’d in Lymphoma

MONDAY, Oct. 28, 2019 (HealthDay News) — For patients with lymphoma, the dose and frequency of hepatitis B vaccination, sex, Ann Arbor stage, and ibrutinib as part of the chemotherapy regimen are independent factors that affect the impact of the vaccine, according to a study published online Oct. 16 in Leukemia & Lymphoma.

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Postop Antibiotics Cut Infections After Facial Plastic Surgery

MONDAY, Oct. 28, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Postoperative antibiotic prescriptions are associated with reduced rates of infections after facial plastic surgery, according to a study published online Oct. 24 in JAMA Facial Plastic Surgery.

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HPV DNA Identified in Oral Cavity of 6.2 Percent of Teen Girls

FRIDAY, Oct. 25, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA is detected in the oral cavities of about 6.2 percent of sexually active female adolescents, according to a study published online Oct. 25 in JAMA Network Open.

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Antibiotics Not Recommended for Most Toothaches

FRIDAY, Oct. 25, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Antibiotics are not recommended for urgent management of symptomatic irreversible pulpitis with or without symptomatic apical periodontitis, pulp necrosis, and symptomatic apical periodontitis or for pulp necrosis and localized acute apical abscess in immunocompetent adults, according to an evidence-based clinical practice guideline published in the November issue of the Journal of the American Dental Association.

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Disneyland Visitors May Have Been Exposed to Measles

THURSDAY, Oct. 24, 2019 (HealthDay News) — People who were at Disneyland in Anaheim, California, and a Starbucks in Los Angeles on Oct. 16 may have been exposed to measles, the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health says.

NBC News Article

Risk for Life-Threatening Infections Greater With Stress-Related Disorders

THURSDAY, Oct. 24, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Stress-related disorders are associated with an increased risk for life-threatening infections, according to a study published online Oct. 23 in The BMJ.

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Limited English Proficiency May Worsen Chronic Disease Outcome

WEDNESDAY, Oct. 23, 2019 (HealthDay News) — In predominantly English-speaking settings, patients with limited English proficiency (LEP) and chronic conditions have higher rates of emergency department revisits and hospital readmissions than patients with English proficiency (EP), according to a research letter published in the Oct. 22/29 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Patients With Diabetes Still Require More Hospitalizations for Infections

WEDNESDAY, Oct. 23, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Rates of hospitalizations for common infections requiring hospitalization remain substantially higher in adults with diabetes compared with adults without diabetes, according to a study published online Oct. 15 in Diabetes Care.

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More Choices, Lower Premiums for ACA Consumers Next Year

TUESDAY, Oct. 22, 2019 (HealthDay News) — There will be more health insurance choices and a slight decrease in premiums for many consumers next year under the Affordable Care Act, according to the Trump administration.

AP News Article

Substance Use Disorder Ups Risk for Death After IE Valve Surgery

TUESDAY, Oct. 22, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Patients with infective endocarditis (IE) and substance use disorder (SUD) have a more than twofold risk for dying following valve surgery compared with patients without SUD, according to a study published online Oct. 16 in the Annals of Thoracic Surgery.

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Antiviral Antibodies ID’d in CSF of Acute Flaccid Myelitis Cases

MONDAY, Oct. 21, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Enterovirus (EV)-specific antibodies have been identified in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of pediatric cases of acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) versus controls, according to a study published online Oct. 21 in Nature Medicine.

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Public Outcomes Reporting Tied to Drop in Valve Replacements

MONDAY, Oct. 21, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Initiating public reporting was associated with a significant decrease in valve surgery for all infective endocarditis (IE) cases, regardless of injection drug use (IDU) status, according to a study published Oct. 10 in Clinical Infectious Diseases.

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Most Physicians Treating STIs Do Not Have Meds on Hand

FRIDAY, Oct. 18, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Most office-based physicians who provide sexually transmitted infections (STIs) services report not having on-site access to the recommended injectable medications for same-day treatment of gonorrhea and syphilis, according to a research letter published in the November issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases, a publication of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

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CDC: Coverage 94.7 Percent for Two Doses of MMR in 2018 to 2019

FRIDAY, Oct. 18, 2019 (HealthDay News) — For the 2018 to 2019 school year, coverage was 94.7 percent for two doses of the measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine, according to research published in the Oct. 18 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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CDC: Vaccination Coverage Generally High for Those Born in 2015-16

THURSDAY, Oct. 17, 2019 (HealthDay News) — For children born in 2015 to 2016, vaccination coverage is generally high, although coverage can be improved with increased access to providers and health insurance, according to research published in the Oct. 18 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Tesamorelin May Aid Patients With HIV, Fatty Liver Disease

WEDNESDAY, Oct. 16, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Tesamorelin reduces liver fat content in patients with HIV and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), according to a study published online Oct. 11 in The Lancet HIV.

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Patients With T2DM Who Have Flu More Likely to Be Hospitalized

FRIDAY, Oct. 11, 2019 (HealthDay News) — The risk for hospitalization with pandemic influenza is higher for patients with type 2 diabetes than for those without type 2 diabetes, according to a study published online Oct. 6 in the Journal of Internal Medicine.

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Patient Portal Use Has Positive Impact on Preventive Health Behaviors

FRIDAY, Oct. 11, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Patient portal use has a positive impact on preventive health behaviors, but not on chronic health outcomes, according to a study published in the October issue of the Journal of Medical Internet Research.

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Lumacaftor-Ivacaftor Aids Cystic Fibrosis in Real-World Setting

FRIDAY, Oct. 11, 2019 (HealthDay News) — After one year of therapy with lumacaftor-ivacaftor in a real-world setting, adolescents and adults with cystic fibrosis and Phe508del homozygous mutation experienced an improvement in lung function, increase in body mass index, and reduced need for IV antibiotics, according to a study published online Oct. 11 in the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

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CDC: Seasonal Influenza Viruses Circulating in Southern Hemisphere

THURSDAY, Oct. 10, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Seasonal influenza viruses are circulating widely in the Southern Hemisphere, but influenza activity is currently low in the United States, according to research published in the Oct. 11 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Anaphylactic Reactions Tied to PICC Insertion With Magnetic Tip

THURSDAY, Oct. 10, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Potential anaphylactic or anaphylactoid reactions have been associated with insertion of peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) using the Sherlock tip locating system (TLS), which features a magnetized stylet wire, according to a study published online Oct. 8 in Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology.

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Screening for Bacterial Vaginosis in Pregnancy Not Advised

WEDNESDAY, Oct. 9, 2019 (HealthDay News) — The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends against screening for bacterial vaginosis in pregnant women who are not at increased risk for preterm delivery; for pregnant women at increased risk for preterm delivery, the balance of benefits and harms cannot be determined. These findings form the basis of a draft recommendation statement published online Oct. 8 by the USPSTF.

Draft Evidence Review
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Medicare Fraud-Prevention Rules to Be Revised

WEDNESDAY, Oct. 9, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Revision of decades-old Medicare rules meant to prevent fraud has been proposed by the Trump administration.

AP News Article

2000 to 2015 Saw Increase in Medicare GME Payments

WEDNESDAY, Oct. 9, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Medicare graduate medical education (GME) payments increased significantly from 2000 to 2015, according to a study published online Oct. 7 in JAMA Internal Medicine.

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Acute Respiratory Viral Illness Surveillance Possible in Long-Term Care

WEDNESDAY, Oct. 9, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Active acute respiratory illness surveillance can be implemented among patients and staff in an adult long-term care facility, according to a study published online Sept. 25 in Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology.

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Only Half of Pregnant Women Receive Recommended Vaccines

TUESDAY, Oct. 8, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Many pregnant women do not receive the recommended flu and tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccines to protect themselves and their infants, according to a Vital Signs report published in the Oct. 8 early-release issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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California Pharmacists Can Dispense HIV Prevention Meds Without Rx

TUESDAY, Oct. 8, 2019 (HealthDay News) — California is the first state to allow pharmacists to dispense HIV prevention pills to patients without a doctor’s prescription.

AP News Article

American Airlines Passengers May Have Been Exposed to Hepatitis A

TUESDAY, Oct. 8, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Passengers on several American Airline flights in the United States may have been exposed to hepatitis A by a flight attendant, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says.

ABC News Article

2017 to 2018 Saw Increases in Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, Syphilis

TUESDAY, Oct. 8, 2019 (HealthDay News) — During 2017 to 2018, there were increases in the rates of chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis, according to a report published online Oct. 8 by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance 2018

Cost of Waste in U.S. Health System Estimated

TUESDAY, Oct. 8, 2019 (HealthDay News) — The estimated cost of waste in the U.S. health care system varies from $760 to $935 billion, according to a special communication published online Oct. 7 in the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Burnout Linked to Poor Quality Care in Published Literature

TUESDAY, Oct. 8, 2019 (HealthDay News) — In the published literature, burnout in health care professionals is frequently associated with poor-quality care, but the effect size may be smaller than reported, according to data from a systematic review published online Oct. 8 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Data Suggest Viral Etiology for Pediatric Acute Flaccid Myelitis

MONDAY, Oct. 7, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Surveillance data for acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) suggests a viral etiology, according to a study published online Oct. 7 in Pediatrics.

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Guideline for Community-Acquired Pneumonia Updated

MONDAY, Oct. 7, 2019 (HealthDay News) — In an updated official clinical practice guideline from the American Thoracic Society and Infectious Diseases Society of America, published in the Oct. 1 issue of the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, recommendations are presented for the diagnosis and management of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP).

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North Carolina Outbreak of Legionnaires’ Traced to Hot Tub Display

FRIDAY, Oct. 4, 2019 (HealthDay News) — An outbreak of Legionnaires’ disease that has sickened 116 and killed one at the state fair may have started at a hot tub display, the North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services reported Wednesday.

AP News Article
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Hepatitis C Virus Infection Rates Up for Women Giving Birth

FRIDAY, Oct. 4, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Among women giving birth, the rates of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection increased more than 400 percent from 2000 to 2015, with rates much higher among those with opioid use disorder, according to research published in the Oct. 4 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Survey: Many U.S. Adults Not Planning to Get Flu Vaccine

FRIDAY, Oct. 4, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Many U.S. adults, including some at the highest risk for the flu and pneumonia, do not plan to get preventive vaccines, according to a survey conducted by NORC at the University of Chicago on behalf of the National Foundation for Infectious Diseases.

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United States Will Keep Measles Elimination Status

THURSDAY, Oct. 3, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Despite recent outbreaks among unvaccinated people, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention expects the United States will maintain its measles elimination status.

CNN Article

Isoniazid Tx to Prevent TB Ups Risks During HIV+ Pregnancy

WEDNESDAY, Oct. 2, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Initiation of isoniazid preventive therapy during pregnancy is associated with increased risks versus initiation during the postpartum period, according to a study published in the Oct. 3 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Only Half of Ear, Nose, Throat Infections Receive Recommended Antibiotics

WEDNESDAY, Oct. 2, 2019 (HealthDay News) — In outpatient settings, only 50 percent of visits for pharyngitis, sinusitis, and acute otitis media (AOM) receive recommended first-line antibiotics, according to a study published online Sept. 23 in Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy.

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No Benefit Found for High-Dose Vitamin C Infusions in Sepsis, ARDS

TUESDAY, Oct. 1, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Compared with placebo, intravenous infusion of high-dose vitamin C does not improve organ dysfunction or alter markers of inflammation or vascular injury among patients with sepsis and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), according to a study published in the Oct. 1 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Incidence of HPV-Positive Head and Neck Cancer Up in the U.S.

TUESDAY, Oct. 1, 2019 (HealthDay News) — The rate of head and neck cancers has risen since the 1970s, and most cases are linked to human papillomavirus (HPV), according to a study recently published in Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention.

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North Carolina Legionnaires’ Case Count Climbs to 79

TUESDAY, Oct. 1, 2019 (HealthDay News) — The number of confirmed cases of Legionnaires’ disease linked to a North Carolina state fair now stands at 79, including 55 people hospitalized and one death.

CNN Article
More Information: CDC

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