Recent researches have reported beneficial effects of OT on the olfactory nervous system. However, the mechanisms underlying the regeneration of the olfactory system induced by OT are still under investigation. Researchers did this study to determine the critical mechanisms involved in the olfactory system recovery and assess OT’s neuroplastic effects.

Thirty healthy female C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups. The assessment done included neuroepithelium, gene ontology, RNA, and protein studies.

FFT was significantly reduced at three weeks in the OT mice versus steroids and controls. However, the FFT outcome was similar in these groups. Expression of olfactory and neurogenesis markers was higher in the olfactory neuroepithelium of the OT group. The mechanisms underlying olfactory regeneration may be associated with early olfactory receptor stimulation, followed by neurotrophic factor stimulation of neuronal plasticity.

The study concluded that OT could improve olfactory function and accelerate olfactory recovery. The mechanisms underlying olfactory regeneration might be related to an initial stimulation of olfactory receptors followed by neurogenesis. Olfactory ensheathing cells might play an essential role in olfactory regeneration following OT, based on the observed changes in mRNA and protein expression and the gene analysis findings.