The latest research in the rapidly growing field of oral and subled immunotherapy food should be rigorously assessed.

The threshold of reactiveness to peanuts, cow’s milk, Egg, wheat, and many other foods in the majority of treated patients increases in food allergens-specific immunological oral therapy (OIT) and sublingual routes (SLIT). This desensitised condition depends on the continuing intake of dietary maintenance dosages. In a smaller group of treated persons, permanent oral tolerance is possible. The optimum therapeutic period has not been found but is likely to be phenotype-dependent (severity and persistence). Food-OIT efficiency is higher than that of SLIT, although safety is worse for the OIT. The key aims at this stage are standardising treatment methods, maintenance dose, therapeutic duration, target population and the harmonisation of the outcomes.

Two separate approaches in food-specific allergens immunotherapy are OIT and SLIT. While important progress has been achieved in the recent decade, both methods of treatment are still extremely early in their development and further studies are needed for protocol optimisation and safety enhancements, whilst optimising effectiveness.