Mucous membrane pemphigoid (MMP) is an autoimmune illness that causes mucous membrane fibrosis and functional impairment. Biologic medicines should be investigated as an alternative therapy option to enhance results. For a study, researchers sought to carry out a systematic review of biologic therapy results in MMP patients.

On July 23, 2020, a MEDLINE and Embase search was performed to include 63 papers that followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses criteria.

In 331 MMP patients, intravenous immunoglobulin (n=154), rituximab (n=112), tumour necrosis factor α inhibitors (n=7), and combination therapies (n=58) were used. Within 26.0 months, 61.7% (n=95/154) of patients had full clearance, with a recurrence incidence of 22.7% (n=35/154) and headache as the most prevalent side event (8.4%, n=13/154). Rituximab resulted in full remission in 70.5% (n=79/112) of patients within 8.7 months, with a 35.7% (n=40/112) recurrence rate. Urinary tract infections (4.5%, n=5/112), leukocytopenia (2.7%, n=3/112), and mortality owing to severe infections (1.8%, n=2/112) were the most often reported side events. Tumor necrosis factor α inhibitors resulted in full remission in 71.4% of patients (n=5/7) after 3.9 months of therapy with no documented side effects.

Randomized clinical studies with long-term follow-up are necessary to conclude the potential safety and effectiveness of biologic medicines in MMP patients.

Reference: jaad.org/article/S0190-9622(21)00010-4/fulltext