Birth weight (BW) is one of the critical determinants of infant mortality and morbidity. At early gestational ages (GA), BW can influence decisions related to the initiation of resuscitation. This study aims to evaluate the outcomes of liveborn infants with a birth weight of less than 400g.

This is a retrospective multicenter cohort study that analyzed extremely preterm infants born between January 2008 and December 2016. The participants included 205 infants with a BW of less than 400g and a GA of 22-26 weeks. The primary outcome of this study was the survival to discharge among infants who received active treatment. The researchers assessed neurodevelopment outcomes for infants who survived for 18-26 months and returned for a visit.

Out of 205 infants, 101 received active treatment at birth, and 26 of them survived to discharge. Two infants out of 101 died after discharge, and two died during follow-up. 19 actively treated infants were assessed at 18-26 months’ corrected age (CA). Moderate or moderately severe neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) occurred in 14 of 19 infants. 

The research concluded that infants born with a birth weight less than 400g are at high risk of mortality and morbidity. Even though 21% of infants survived to 18-26 months’ correction age, NDI was common among survivors.