Although testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) is a standard recommendation for the treatment of symptomatic hypogonadism in men, reaching a proper diagnosis remains a challenge. Studies have shown that outside factors, such as practitioner perception of the patient and a patient’s independent research, may influence the decisions made regarding initiating TRT.


Proper Diagnosis

According to Channa Jayasena, MD, the greatest challenge in treating hypogonadism is “Making the diagnosis in the right men. We rely on a combination of blood test measurements and accurate self-reporting of symptoms. Unfortunately, the Internet has (unknowingly) biased many men to over-interpret normal ups and downs in life as being symptoms of hypogonadism. We all feel tired and low in mood sometimes and don’t always want to have sex.”

Dr. Jayasena and colleagues conducted a study, published in Clinical Endocrinology, to identify clinical characteristics associated with the likelihood of being prescribed TRT in the primary care setting. Participants who received TRT had an older mean age, higher BMI, and higher risk for hypertension, depression, type 2 diabetes, and ischemic heart disease. This group also had lower mean pretreatment total testosterone measurements and was less likely to have prostate cancer.

The researchers noted that when a clinician observes these characteristics in a patient, their decisions may be influenced; thus, they recommend clearer guidance to reach greater consistency in the treatment of hypogonadism.


Consulting Guidelines

Guidelines are often the first source that practitioners turn to when finalizing diagnosis and treatment protocols, notes Dr. Jayasena, but guidelines are not finite and different perspectives and opinions can complicate the recommendations. “I think the guidelines are pretty clear, but there are many of them, and they are worded carefully to reflect many differences in opinions,” he adds. “They are sometimes like the United Nations. So, better outreach to engage/train primary care practitioners to deal with specific situations would be a greater help.”


Symptoms Vs Normal Life

With outside influences like Internet influence heightening self-reported symptoms, distinguishing between men who are dealing with the normal symptoms of aging and men who have hypogonadism can be challenging, and misdiagnosis can have negative consequences. Dr. Jayasena emphasizes this important distinction in treatment: “Testosterone is an extremely safe drug when given to the right men. Testosterone is always unsafe when given inappropriately and prescribed to ‘normal’ men. This will hopefully assure clinicians who are overly cautious about prescribing and warn the minority of over-prescribing, unscrupulous primary care clinicians.”

Dr. Jayasena adds that treating hypogonadism needs to be part of a complete approach to patient care and that treatment protocols should incorporate the significance of lifestyle choices and behaviors. “An increasing number of men have hypogonadism because they are unhealthy in other aspects of their life (functional hypogonadism). We need to define to what extent testosterone more clearly will help these men, above and beyond ‘tried and tested’ approaches like weight loss and exercise programs.”