This study states that The retinal capillary vasculature serves the formidable role of supplying the metabolically active inner and middle retina. In the parafoveal region, the retinal capillary plexuses (RCP) are organized in a system of three capillary layers of varying retinal depths: the superficial capillary plexus (SCP), intermediate capillary plexus (ICP) and deep capillary plexus (DCP). While the dynamic flow through these plexuses is complex and not completely understood, current research points to a hybrid model that includes both parallel and in series components in which blood flows in a predominantly serial direction between the superficial vascular complex (SVC) and deep vascular complex (DVC). Each capillary plexus autoregulates independently, so that under most conditions the retinal vasculature supplies adequate blood flow and oxygen saturation at varying depths despite diverse environmental stressors.

When the flow in the deep vascular complex (i.e. ICP and DCP) fails, an ischemic lesion referred to as Paracentral Acute Middle Maculopathy (PAMM) can be identified. PAMM is an optical coherence tomography (OCT) finding defined by the presence of a hyperreflective band at the level of the inner nuclear layer (INL) that indicates INL infarction caused by globally impaired perfusion through the retinal capillary system leading to hypoperfusion of the DVC or specifically the DCP.

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