This study aimed at daily mobility parameters generated from smartphone GPS to patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs), the current gold standard, to the perioperative period of patients following spine surgery. Trends were analyzed using segmanalyzednear regression analysis before and after surgery. The Student paired t-test was used to compare pre-and postoperative PROM values. They compared the daily average of each GPS-based mobility feature during the recovery period and the daily average of each PROM score using Pearson’s correlation.

Data from smartphone GPS features demonstrate a drop in mobility immediately after surgery, followed by a gradual and steady improvement. PROMs measuring pain, physical performance, and impairment 1 month after surgery were significantly different from the two weeks before surgery. During the recovery phase, the GPS-based characteristics had a moderate to high linear correlation with pain VAS and PROMIS physical score (Pearson r > 0.7). However, the ODI and PROMIS mental scores had a weak link (Pearson r approximately 0.4).


In patients undergoing surgery for spine-related disorders, smartphone-derived GPS data defined perioperative movement trends effectively. Time-related features (rather than distance-related features) were more effective at describing patient physical and performance status. For monitoring patient movement following surgery, surgeons can use smartphone GPS to create precise, noninvasive, and personalized solutions.