It has been claimed that the human genome contributes to interpersonal diversity in how we respond to food intake. However, tailored diets based simply on gene-nutrient interactions have yet to live up to their predictions. Advances in microbiome research have shown that a science-based production of a tailored diet based on a mix of clinical and microbial traits may be a potential new technique for predicting dietary responses. Furthermore, scientific advances in our understanding of defined dietary components and their effects on human physiology have resulted in the incorporation and testing of defined diets as preventive and treatment approaches for diseases such as epilepsy, ulcerative colitis, Crohn disease, and type 1 diabetes mellitus. Furthermore, emerging research indicates that personalized nutrition regimes have the ability to alter pharmacological therapy effectiveness in cancer treatment.

Overall, the true therapeutic potential of nutritional interventions is being revealed, but significant challenges remain in understanding mechanisms of activity, optimizing dietary interventions for specific human subpopulations, and elucidating adverse effects potentially caused by some dietary components in a number of individuals.