Diabetes is a disease characterized by imbalance of blood glucose level due to inadequacy of insulin hormone that balances the glucose level in the body. Some people with prediabetes and diabetes reported thinning of macular however adequate studies were not done on this particular influence of diabetes.

People (2005 in total) who had diabetes ( 57 people) and prediabetes (1638 people) were taken as the target population for this study. The macula was measured using Cirrus HD-OCT 4000. Central retinal arteriolar equivalent (CRAE) and central retinal venular equivalent (CRVE) calibres were measured from the fundus images.

Macular diminishing was seen in subjects with prediabetes (−2.69 μm (95% CI −4.29 to −1.09), p<0.05 and −0.10 mm3 (95% CI −0.16 to −0.04), p<0.05 for macular 3D shape normal thickness and block volume, individually) and it was most prominent in the pericentral region. Macular 3D square normal thickness and macular shape volume diminished essentially by compounding glucose digestion. Moreover, CRAE was diminished by increments in 2-hour post-load glucose, glucose area under the bend and increment in Matsuda index (p<0.001, 0.019 and <0.001, individually). In intervention investigation, macular thickness had a huge average causal mediation effect (ACME) on CRVE and CRAE in subjects with prediabetes.

The research findings suggest that there is significant thinning of the macula in subjects with prediabetes.

Reference: https://bjo.bmj.com/content/early/2020/10/07/bjophthalmol-2020-317414