In this study you will see how Women with end-stage kidney disease commonly have difficulty conceiving through spontaneous pregnancy, and many suffer from infertility. Kidney transplantation restores the impairment in fertility and increases the possibility of pregnancy. In addition, the number of female kidney transplant recipients of reproductive age has been increasing. Thus, preconception counseling, contraceptive management, and family planning are of great importance in the routine care of this population. Pregnancy in kidney transplant recipients is complicated by underlying maternal comorbidities, kidney allograft function, the effect of pregnancy on the transplanted kidney, and the effect of the maternal health on the fetus, in addition to immunosuppressive medications and their potential teratogenesis. Given the potential maternal and fetal risks, and possible complications during pregnancy, pretransplant and prepregnancy counseling for women of reproductive age are crucial, including delivery of information regarding contraception and timing for pregnancy, fertility and pregnancy rates, the risk of immunosuppression on the fetus, the risk of kidney allograft, and other maternal complications.

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