The researchers determined Adult spinal deformity (ASD) to be the subject of a prospective nutritional intervention trial. For a study, they sought to determine how a dietary intervention impacts postoperative medical problems and nutritional status. Malnutrition was one of the leading causes of medical complications with ASD surgery. Nutritional intervention enhanced a patient’s nutritional state and reduced risks, although this was not studied in the context of ASD surgery. Patients who were malnourished (i.e., had a prognosis nutritional index [PNI] score of 50) and scheduled for surgery after November 2018 (Group I) received nutritional intervention on the day of surgery, which included dietary supervision and supplements. Medical complication rates were compared between Groups I and NI (malnourished patients who had surgery between January 2014 and October 2018; historical controls). The nutritional status of Group I (patients who did not receive the nutritional intervention after November 2018) and Group NI2 (patients who did not get nutritional assistance after November 2018) were assessed.

Group I had 24 patients (mean age, 70 yr), and Group NI had 69 patients (mean age, 68 yr). The mean intervention duration was 41 days. The preoperative PNI score did not differ between the groups, but there was a significant difference in medical complications incidences (Group I: 25%; Group NI: 53.6%; P=0.015). The nutritional status significantly deteriorated in Group I (PNI: 47–45; P=0.011) and Group NI2 (61 patients; mean age, 68 yr; PNI: 52–48; P=0.000), but the PNI changes were significantly smaller in Group I (ΔPNI: Group I: −1.9, Group NI 2: −3.5; P=0.027).

In malnourished individuals, nutritional intervention with advice and supplements minimized postoperative medical problems. The nutritional status of ASD patients who needed surgery inevitably deteriorated, implying that ASD may have a role in malnutrition. Nutritional intervention may help to prevent the decline of nutritional status.