For a study, many patients experienced long-term symptoms after contracting the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The researcher’s goal was to determine the prevalence and correlates of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection post-acute sequelae (PASC). The researchers employed a population-based probability survey of persons with COVID-19. COVID-19 onset to mid-April 2020 among living noninstitutionalized people aged greater than or equal to 18 in the Disease Surveillance System that was eligible for selection (N=28,000). About 629 people were chosen out of 2000 selected people, and 629 of them completed the survey between June and December 2020. The researchers calculated PASC prevalence overall and by sociodemographic and clinical variables, defined as persistent symptoms greater than or equal to 30 (30-day COVID-19) or greater than or equal to 60 (60-day COVID-19) days post–COVID-19 onset. The researchers calculated adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs) for possible risk factors using modified Poisson regression. The analytic sample (n=593) was mostly female (56.1%), greater than or equal to 45 years old (68.2%), and non-Hispanic White (46.3%) or Black (34.8%). Even among nonhospitalized respondents (43.7% and 26.9%) and responders reporting minor symptoms (29.2% and 24.5%), 30- and 60-day COVID-19 were significantly frequent (52.5% and 35.0%, respectively). Respondents who reported extremely severe (vs mild) symptoms exhibited 2.25 times higher 30-day COVID-19 prevalence (aPR, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.46–3.46) and 1.71 times higher 60-day COVID-19 prevalence (aPR, 1.71; 95% CI: 1.02–2.88). Both 30-day (aPR, 1.37; 95% CI: 1.12–1.69) and 60-day (aPR, 1.40; 95% CI: 1.02–1.93) COVID-19 prevalence was 40% higher in hospitalized (vs nonhospitalized) respondents. PASC is more common in instances with severe initial symptoms and, to a lesser extent, in those with milder or moderate symptoms.