Nongeographic atrophy (NGA) refers to as the retinal pigment disturbances, including hyperpigmentation and hypopigmentation in CFPs. NGA can be caused in eyes treated with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD). This study aims to evaluate the incidence of NGA, along with its chances of progressing to geographic atrophy (GA).
This post hoc analysis of a cohort study included a total of 1,107 participants who were treated with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor for (nAMD). The participants were randomly assigned to ranibizumab or bevacizumab. The primary outcome of the study was the incidence of nAMD-associated NGA and its progression to GA.
During the follow-up of 1, 2, and 5 years, the risk of NGA was 35%, 59%, and 82%, respectively. Risk factors of NGA were worse visual acuity, larger neovascularization area, switched drug regimen, and single-nucleotide variants. At 1, 3, and 5 years, the risk of progression to GA was 29%, 43%, and 50%, respectively. The risk factors for progression to GA were worse visual acuity, worse fellow-eye visual acuity, and worse fellow-eye visual acuity.
The research concluded that patients with protocol-guided anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment for nAMD were at a significantly higher risk of developing NGA and its progression to GA.